Electromagnetic metamaterials (EM) are synthetic structures with special electromagnetic properties such as negative value of the refractive index – as postulated by Veselago. They have become an active research area because they exhibit unusual EM responses not attainable with natural materials. Some attractive application examples are in superlensing, cloaking, artificial magnetic conductance and more generally, coordinate transformation material design. As a one way to realize such functionalities, periodic or semi-periodic arrays of resonant structures such as split-ring resonators (SRRs) have been used. Second way to realize such functionalities, full 3D dielectric structure based on period 3D unit cell have been used.
To realize modeling of these structures, (distributed) circuit model-based and full EM-simulation model based have benn used.